Gregory Brown
513 Agnes Arnold Hall
Department of Philosophy
University of Houston
Houston, TX 77204-3004

Victor IV.
(d. 1164)

Antipope (1159-1164)

died April 20, 1164, Lucca, Tuscany [Italy]

original name Ottaviano De Monticello

Antipope from 1159 to 1164, the first of four antipopes established against Pope Alexander III. (c. 1105-1181) by the Holy Roman emperor Friedrich I. Barbarossa (1123-1190). (In adopting his papal name, he ignored the antipope Victor of 1138.)

Made cardinal by Pope Innocent II. (d. 1143) in 1138, he was elected by a minority of cardinals in September 1159, while, concurrently, a majority elected Alexander as Adrian IV.'s successor. After a scandalous scene between Victor and Alexander, Victor's armed supporters burst into St. Peter's, Rome, and enthroned him, forcing Alexander to withdraw.

Frederick, as protector of the church, attempted to solve the schism both through diplomacy and by convening the Council of Pavia in 1160 to obtain ecclesiastical endorsement for Victor. Europe, however, rejected any revival of imperial control over the papacy. Even in Germany some clergy remained loyal to Alexander. Victor never received much support and anathematized Alexander, who excommunicated Frederick for convoking the council. Victor was succeeded by the antipope Paschal III.

Copyright © 1994-2002 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.


  • Encylopedia Britannica 2002, Expanded Edition DVD