Gregory Brown
513 Agnes Arnold Hall
Department of Philosophy
University of Houston
Houston, TX 77204-3004

Alexander III.
(c. 1105-1181)

Pope (1159-1181)

born c. 1105, , Siena, Tuscany
died Aug. 30, 1181, Rome

original name Rolando Bandinelli

pope from 1159 to 1181, a vigorous exponent of papal authority, which he defended against challenges by the Holy Roman emperor Friedrich I. Barbarossa (1123-1190) and Henry II. (1133-1189).

Copyright © 1994-2002 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.


  • Encylopedia Britannica 2002, Expanded Edition DVD