Gregory Brown
513 Agnes Arnold Hall
Department of Philosophy
University of Houston
Houston, TX 77204-3004


Duke of Brunswick - Wolfenbüttel

     Duke Julius was the third-born son of duke Heinrich the Younger (1489-1568).  Therefore, Julius was not at first destined to rule in Wolfenbüttel.  Moreover, from birth the duke suffered from a bodily impairment.  Consequently he had entered upon a religious education and received a canonry at the seminary of Cologne.  After the death of both his older brothers in the battle of Sievershausen in 1553, the young son came suddenly into the middle of events at the court in Wolfenbüttel.  Julius stood in opposition to his father his entire life.  His marriage to Hedwig, the daughter of elector Joachim II. Hektor (1505-1571) of Brandenburg, first broke the accord between father and son.  After the death of his father in 1568, duke Julius inaugurated the Reformation in the principality of Wolfenbüttel.  The young duke produced a series of notable achievements.  He founded the University of Helmstedt and reorganized the state government.  He encouraged measures for the improvement of the roads and waterways and promoted mining and metallurgy.  With the death of duke Erich II. (1528-1584), duke Julius inherited the principality of Calenberg - Göttingen.  Duke Julius managed to keep the principality of Wolfenbüttel free of debt and to leave behind to his son, Heinrich Julius (1564-1613), a great fortune.  The duke was a sensible and wisely calculating prince, who had the advancement of his land in view and not a showy external display.

--Adapted from the website, Die Welfen


  • Luckardt, Jochen. In the catalog for the exhibition "Hofkunst der Spätrenaissance." Brunswick, 1998.