Gregory Brown
513 Agnes Arnold Hall
Department of Philosophy
University of Houston
Houston, TX 77204-3004

Heinrich IV.
(Henry IV.)

Duke of Bavaria (as Heinrich VIII., 1055-1061)
German King (from 1054)
Holy Roman Emperor (1084-1105/06))

born Nov. 11, 1050, Goslar?, Saxony
died Aug. 7, 1106, Liège, Lorraine

Duke of Bavaria (as Henry VIII, 1055–61), German king (from 1054), and Holy Roman emperor (1084–1105/06), who engaged in a long struggle with Hildebrand (Pope Gregory VII) on the question of lay investiture (see Investiture Controversy), eventually drawing excommunication on himself and doing penance at Canossa (1077). His last years were spent countering the rebellion of his sons Conrad and Henry (the future Henry V).

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  • Encylopedia Britannica 2002, Expanded Edition DVD